Interethnic marriages: between an exercise of tolerance and a modern expression of indifference. 1895-2010
Mixed marriages: between an exercise of tolerance and a modern expression of indifference. 1895-2010
Scientific report 2011-2016
This project was born from the need to bring into the light aspects of life which has been less aproached by researchers in what concernes the specifics of Transylvania as an area of ethnic and cultural diversity. As history has proved it many times, living in such areas often meant tension and conflict. On the other hand, many centuries of coexistence of no less than eleven ethnicities and seven denominatios prove a strong ability to cooperate, to build together.
In Romanian historiography prevailed, until today, a trend focused in particular on the moments and episodes of conflict, generated by inter-confessional tensions. In contrast, this project has turned its attention to areas of meeting for different ethnicities and confessions, one of the most relevant being considered the marriage, as mixed marriage. Mixed marriage was seen as a scene where ethnic and religious diversity has acted as a positive force, generating social cohesion. By deciphering and understanding the mechanisms governing mixed marriages, the project aims to extract valuable experiences and lessons for peaceful coexistence in multicultural areas, a situation which is at the same time, one of the biggest challenges of the times we live in.
The project was carried out over a period of five years, with the research activity undertaken in archives and libraries, numerous scientific works were written, presentations at national and international conferences were delivered. These activities were performed sequentially or in overlapped stages, according to their specificity.
The project aimed to achieve the following objectives:
Objective 1.Reconstuction of evolution of mixed marriages according to different historical, political and cultural aspects.
To achieve this objective, the entire collection of "Historical Bibliography of Romania" was consulted, dozens of Romanian, German and Hungarian periodicals were selected for analysis, fiction literature was read and analyzed, along with ecclesiastical and civil regulations.
The activities undertaken to achieve this objective were, therefore, the following:
a) Study of ecclesiastical laws on marriage in general, and mixed marriages in particular, of canonical texts and circulars issued by the ecclesiastical authorities.
Rules and regulations of the Orthodox, Greek Catholic, and Evangelical were taken into account, in particular those found in collections of publshed circulars, in journals, or in canon law compendiums.
The regulations and activity of churches in Transylvania regarding the researched phenomenon revealed that, after 1895, i.e. after losing exclusivity on the private life of individuals in favor of the State, the churches were less active in this area. In the nineteenth century, however, issues such as determining the priest officiating the marriage union, baptism and religious education of children born in such mixed marriages, establishing jurisdiction of matrimonial ecclesiastical courts, were in the forefront of interfaith relations agenda.
b) Study of civil law relating to marriage, in order to investigate the attitude of the state towards minorities, and the influence of political factors on the phenomenon of mixed marriages.
The considered legislation reflected the political changes Transylvania went through, during the mentioned period. This Romanian province was part of empires, included in Romanian Kingdom after 1918, which transitioned from monarchy to republic after World War II, endured the communist regime, and its collapse in 1989. Many of these changes have had a profound impact on the Transylvania where, at least until 1945, the relations between the inhabiting ethnic groups were always fluid, amid political and military events in which the province was involved. All these changes have affected, in one way or another, the phenomenon of mixed marriages. Interestingly, it was found from analyzing legislation and complementary sources, that the communist state has encouraged intermarriage in Transylvania to the point that the decade 1970-1980 could be called the "golden era of mixed marriages" in Romania.
c) Studying published sources of mentioned period on mixed marriages (press, memoirs, folklore etc.), in order to investigate the public perception of this phenomenon.
Literary testimonies and memoirs describe real demographic behaviors, stereotypes and prejudices that have decisively influenced the matrimonial market in Transylvania, especially in the last decades of the nineteenth century. Literature was an important source for this project: it is enough, we believe, to mention Mara, the heroine of Slavici, to illustrate the perception on intermarriage as found in literature: "God knows how I thought of you, how I worked for you, with how much heart I took care of you, and can not punish me so harshly. If I see you dead, all the joy of my life would be lost, but I would say that what happened to me, a happened, also, to other mothers like me, and I'd finally be at peace. None of my relatives has ever tainted his blood, though!"
Objective 2: Finding explanations for intermarriage, by gathering data through interviews - life stories, opinions, motivations, from those directly involved in the investigated phenomenon.
A life stories approach allowed us to analyze events, actions, norms, values, through the eyes of people involved in a mixed marriage. Through this method, the team obtained reports about social and cultural circumstances of marriages between people of different ethnicities and denominations, directly from the own experience of the interviewees. The wealth of material gathered thus allowed us, also, to analyze the wider social, economic, political context where respondents lived, a context that favored or hampered a marriage with a person of different ethnicity or religion.
To achieve this objective, the following activities were completed:
a)Developing a working method and the interview guide. Micro-social approach allowed the investigation of multiples factors associated with different theoretical perspectives on mixed marriages. Being semi-structured interviews, interview guide reffers to a range of issues covered with varied questions. Each situation determined whether questions were addressed in the exact order and form included in the guide, or if the interviewer decided to leave greater freedom to the respondent, following, though, the achievement of all issues mentioned in the guide.
The interview followed six major sections of respondent`s life: existance of other mixed marriages in the family, the formative years of the respondent (childhood, adolescence), the formation of couples, attitudes and behaviors of families of the two partners over strengthening relations between the two, the couple's children, and respondent`s feedback on the experience of a mixed marriage. The first and second section emphasize social practices, characteristics of family and social environment in which the individual grew, contacts and experience that the respondent had, during socializing with other ethnicity. The third section provides information about the importance of cultural similarity in forming interpersonal relationships, and the fourth section allows documentation of family intervention in the selection of the partner. Following various stages of strengthening the relationship between the two partners, one can see the continuity or change in attitudes toward relationship and family of daughter / son with a person of different ethnicity, and triggers of change (marriage, birth of a child). The fifth section focuses on mixed couples choices of ethnic, religious, linguistic affiliation for children born of a mixed marriage. The last section includes feedback on the experience of a mixed marriage, how to manage conflicts, the role of cultural differences.
To analyze the perspective on mixed marriage of both the partner belonging to the ethnic majority, and the one from the ethnic minority, both spouses were interviewed (separate interviews). This couple was called a "core".
The team considered not only the individual experience, and that of the couple in relation to mixed marriage, but the perception of the extended family on marriage between members of different ethnic groups and different denominations; it was considered interviewing the ascendants of the respondents, respectively at least one parent from each side. The interviewing of a parent of the couple intend to emphasyze the reactions, the attitude of the family when faced with the choice of the daughter / son of a mixed marriage. If the ascendant is part of a mixed marriage too, the interview is conducted similar to that of a core.
If the core respondents are elders, which excludes the possibility of interviewing an ascendant, it was considered interviewing a descendant of the couple, if this is part of a mixed marriage also.
Before conducting the interview, the respondent received a form with information about the purpose of the interview and the confidentiality of information collected (anonymization procedure), in order to grant the consent for audio recording of the interview. The interview guide is completed with a brief registration form of socio-economic characteristics of the respondents.
b)Identifying of individuals to be interviewed. The participants were selected from social networks of the researchers involved in the project, to which were gradually added members of social networks of the respondents.
c)Carrying out the interviews. 100 interviews were conducted with people both from the urban and rural areas, with the most diverse ages, occupations and socio-professional statuses.
d)Transcription of the interviews. Respondents received pseudonyms to protect their identities.
e)Analysis and interpretation of interviews. Analysis and interpretation of interviews project allowed an intimate, in-depth understanding of the mechanism of mixed marriages. Data processed from interviews led to the following conclusions:
-the formation of a mixed couple is usually determined by the existing, for the members of the couple, of a shared context, beyond the differences in ethnicity or religion (territorial proximity, common work or school, friends, religious community across ethnic boundaries etc.);
-the reactions of disapproval from extended families (parents and other relatives of the couple) are successfully overcome if the couple managed to integrate harmoniously into everyday life the cultural differences between them;
-the education of children resulting from these marriages is generally decided with the contribution of both cultures that characterize the couple (often involving grandparents, which thus become agents of transmission of cultural heritage of community membership);
-in case of different denominations, there is respect for core elements of both religions involved, even in families that are not necessarily religiously active.
-the baptism and religious education of children of couples with mixed denominations are usually determined by agreement, without further resentment;
-tha language spoken in mixed couples is determined, most often, by practical considerations; most ofen, it is chosen the language that is known by both members. There are, however, many cases using both languages, when there is willingness to learn the "other`s";
-children of ethnically mixed couples are educated, most often, in both languages, which is considered an advantage in many cases, opening the opportunity for two different cultures, with many opportunities for the future (wider range of training on offer, better employment etc.).
The data available through these interviews depict the mixed marriage as a place of mutual respect for otherness, a space where cultural differences are perceived as incentives for growth and development, not as sources of conflict.
Objective 3. Reconstitution of quantitative evolution of mixed marriages in Transylvania between 1895-2010
Achieving this goal involved some scrupulous and time consuming activities, due to lack of uniform statistics and sources on the researched topics. Activities carried out under this objective were as follows (2014-2015):
a)Identification of published and unpublished sources on mixed marriages in Transylvania. There were analyzed several categories of sources:
Historical sources: civil registers, issued both by parishes and state authorities. This source provides especially quantitative data on the phenomenon of mixed marriages: their proportion in the total number of marriages, ethnicities and denominations involved, their percentage, social, and regional distribution etc. On the other hand, after dozens of these registers covered already by the team members, it became apparent that these sources have some serious limitations: civil records kept by the state authorities did not explicitly mention ethnicity (that cannot be inferred implicitly by name, due to their magyarisation in many cases); it is mentioned in some parish registers, but not all, making it impossible to obtain an overall picture for Transylvania.
Bibliographic sources: studies and articles on intermarriage written by Romanian authors; studies and articles concerning mixed marriages published in the international scientific environment.
This activity is basically complementary to activities related to the objective 1. Following this substantial effort, resulted a bibliographic database containing hundreds of titles, a useful tool for researchers interested in the issue of mixed marriages.
b)Analysing of quantitative data regarding intermarriage, collected by team members. These data come mainly from civil registers, and refers to the grooms name, age, confession, origin, occupation, parents' names, the names of godparents. They showed that the bride which entered a mixed marriages often came, also, from mixed families, which has contributed, over the centuries, to the special character of Transylvanian society, to an extremely diverse ethnic and confessional environment.
In the case of urban areas (such as, for example, the city of Cluj), it is mentioned the address of the spouses, which will allow us, following a scrupulous reconstruction, to draw conclusions on the relationship between the territorial proximity and the percentage of mixed marriages (at the current stage research, this approach is only possible for the city of Cluj during the interwar period).
c)Processing of individual data from censuses of 1977, 1992 and 2002. This activity is complementary to the above, originated with the team`s intention to obtain a strong quantitative basis necessary for the formulation of valid explanations.
Data from these activities have been organized into a database about mixed marriages in Transylvania developed in Microsoft Access program.
Objective 4. Disseminating the research results. This was a permanent and constant activity, extended throughout the whole duration of the project. This activity resulted in the publication of books and studies, and participation in national and international conferences as follows:
·Ioan Bolovan, Alexandru Moraru, ”Ortodoxia în Transilvania : aspecte istorico-statistice privind oraşul Cluj în anul 1922”, Presa Universitară Clujeană, Cluj, 2011, 114 p., ISBN 978-973-595-322-5.
·Luminiţa Dumănescu, Daniela Mârza, Marius Eppel (eds.), „Intermarriage throughout History”, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcaslte upon Tyne, 2014, 505 p., ISBN 978-1-4438-5950.
·Antoinette Fauve-Chamoux, Ioan Bolovan, Solvi Sogner (eds), ”A global history of historical demography. Half a century of interdisciplinarity”, Peter Lang, 2016, 683 p., ISBN 978-3-0343-2303-1.
oThe work is the result of the principal investigator`s efforts, prof. dr. Ioan Bolovan, to promote the Romanian historical demography among international scientific environement; due to his activity, in 2015 he was designated as president of the International Commission of Historical Demography. This volume summarizes the stage reached by research in historical demography worldwide.
·Ioan Bolovan (ed.), ”Mixed Marriages in Transylvania, 1895-2010”, 320 p., Peter Lang, 2016.
oThe book, consisting of chapters written by all team members, contains the conclusions drawn after these five years of research. Its structure covers all aspects relevant to the subject of mixed marriages: a historical perspective on them (civil and ecclesiastical laws, the public perception on intermarriage, quantitative approaches etc.), but also a current, contemporary one (the factors involved in formation a mixed marriage, "negotiation" of language spoken in the family, the language chosen for socialization of children, their denomination etc.).
Articles in scientific journals and volumes:
·Ioan Bolovan, Marius Eppel, Liana Lapadatu, Entre les contraintes de l`État et celles de l`Église: identité et alterité a travers les mariages mixtes en Transylvanie a l`époque moderne, in Revue Roumaine d`Histoire, tome LI, nos. 1-2, Janvier-Juin 2012, pp. 27-36.
·Ioan Bolovan, Marius Eppel, Bogdan Crăciun, Between Tolerance and Private Life: Mixed Marriages in a Multiethnic and Multiconfessional Environment (A Case Study on the City of Cluj (1900-1939), in I Congresso Histórico Internacional As Cidades na História: Populaçao, Guimaraes, 2012, pp. 35-49.
·Ioan Bolovan, Marius Eppel, Între stat şi biserică: identitate şi alteritate prin căsătoriile mixte în Transilvania (a doua jumătate a sec. al XIX-lea şi începutul sec. XX), in vol. ”In Honorem Alexandru Moşanu. Studii de istorie medievală, modernă şi contemporană a românilor”, coord. Nicolae Enciu, Centrul de Studii Transilvane and Presa Universitară Clujeană, Cluj-Napoca, 2012, pag. 327-336 .
·Luminita Dumănescu, The Law of Marrige in Romania, 1890 -2010, in Transylvanian Review, nr. 3/2012, p. 116-126.
·Ioan Bolovan, Daniela Mârza, Bogdan Crăciun, Mixed Marriages in a Multiethnic and Multiconfessional Environment. A Case Study on the City of Cluj (1900-1939), in Transylvanian Review, Suppl. 4/2012, p. 405-411.
·Bolovan Ioan, Marius Eppel, Legislatia laică şi ecleziastică din Transilvania în epoca modernă si căsătoriile mixte, in Corneliu-Mihai Lungu arhivist, istoric, profesor la 70 de ani (seria Profesioniştii noştri, 10), coord. Ion Vilica, Ioan Lăcătusu, Editura Eurocarpatica, Sfântu-Gheorghe, 2013, pp. 319-328.
·Hărăgus Mihaela, The role of education in ethnically mixed marriages, in Luminiţa Dumănescu, Daniela Mârza, Marius Eppel (eds.), „Intermarriage throughout History”, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcaslte upon Tyne, 2014, p. 389-407.
·Daniela Mârza, Bogdan Crăciun, Mixed Marriages in Cluj in the inter-war period, în Luminiţa Dumănescu, Daniela Mârza, Marius Eppel (eds.), „Intermarriage throughout History”, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcaslte upon Tyne, 2014, p. 170-203.
·Ioan Bolovan, Marius Eppel, Churches from Transylvania and their attitude about mixed marriages (from 1894 to present), in Luminiţa Dumănescu, Daniela Mârza, Marius Eppel (eds.), „Intermarriage throughout History”, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcaslte upon Tyne, 2014, p. 252-285.
·Marius Eppel, Confesiune ?i căsătorie mixtă în Transilvania în secolul XXI, in Ioan Bolovan, Ovidiu Ghitta (coord.), Istoria ca datorie. Omagiul Academicianului Ioan-Aurel Pop la împlinirea vârstei de 60 ani, Centrul de Studii Transilvane, Cluj-Napoca, 2014, p. 315-327.
·Daniela Mârza, The Question of the Language Spoken in Mixed Families in a Multiethnic Environement. Case Study: Transylvania, in Transylvanian Review, 4/2014, p. 77-88.
·Luminita Dumănescu, Being a child in a mixed family in nowadays Transylvania, in Romanian Journal of Population Studies, no. 2/2015, p. 83-102.
·Mihaela Hărăgus, Dynamics of Mixed Unions in Transylvania, Romania, in Romanian Journal of Population Studies, no. 2/2015, p. 103-122.
·Marius Eppel, Le choix du conjoint au sein des mariages mixtes en Transylvanie 1950-2010: l’importance de la religion, în vol. Nouvelles études d’histoire, Publiées a l’occasion du XXIIe Congres International des Sciences Historiques, Jinan, 2015, XIII, 2015, pp. 175-187.
·Marius Eppel, Alegerea partenerului în cadrul căsătoriilor mixte în Transilvania (1950-2010): Importanta criteriului etnic, in Dana Bako, Iosif Marin Balog, Rudolf Graf (coord.), Economie si istorie. Dialog si interdisciplinaritate. In honorem Ioan Lumperdean la împlinirea vârstei de 60 de ani, Academia Română, Cluj-Napoca, 2015, pp. 525-532.
·Mihaela Hărăguş, Daniela Mârza, Bogdan Crăciun, Divorces in a Multiethnic and Multiconfessional Environment. A Case Study on the Transylvania in the 20th century, accepted to be published in Revista de Historiografía, publicatie a Institutului de Istoriografie "Julio Caro Baroja" din cadrul Universitătii ”Carlos III” din Madrid, Spania).
·Viorela Telegdi-Csetri, Displaying Ethnically Mixed Families in Transylvania, accepted to be published in Transylvanian Review (Supplement 2017).
Conference organized in the framework of the project:
International conference ”Intermarriage throughout History”, Cluj Napoca, 5-8 June 2013. Organised under the auspices of the International Committee of historical demography, the conference brought together 66 specialists, including 27 from abroad (Bulgaria, Hungary, Austria, Poland, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Russia, Norway, Portugal, Peru, Mexico, Japan, Algeria, Uruguay). The event was a great success, including in terms of financial management - related expenditures were incurred entirely from participation fees, without involving the project budget. Some of the presented papers, selected through peer-review, were published in volume Luminiţa Dumanescu, Daniela Marza, Marius Eppel (eds.), "Intermarriage througho History", Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcaslte upon Tyne, 2014.
The team delivered three paper presentations, all included in the volume.
Panels organized at international conferences:
·Ioan Bolovan - organizer and discussant of panel ”Interfaith, Interethnic and International Marriage”, “European Social Science History Conference”, Glasgow, 11-14 April 2012 (with Peter Teibenbacher).
·Ioan Bolovan - discusant of panel ” History of Historical Demography Further Explored”, at “European Social Science History Conference”, Glasgow, 11-14 April 2012 (with Bruce Fetter, Andrejs Plakans, Solvi Sogner).
·Marius Eppel - organizer of panel ”Eurasian Families, popular beliefs and religion in comparative perspective”, at 37th Annual Meeting of the Social Science History Association, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 1-4 November 2012 (with Antoinette Fauve Chamoux, Alice Kasakoff).
·Ioan Bolovan - organizer of panel „Marriage and Divorce in Multicultural Environments in Comparative Perspective”, at „European Social Science History Conference”, Valencia, 30 March-2 April 2016.
·Ioan Bolovan, Marius Eppel - organizers, Luminita Dumănescu - discusant of panel ”Marriage during War”, at „European Social Science History Conference”, Valencia, 30 March-2 April 2016.
Project presentation at international workshops:
·Marius Eppel, Interethnic marriages: between an exercise of tolerance and a modern expression of indifference. 1895-2010. Project Presentation, la workshop-ul ”Implementation of the IDS in Several Databases: Problems and Challenges”, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 1 noiembrie 2012 (organizator Kees Mandemakers).
·Marius Eppel, Les mariages interethniques: entre l'exercice de la tolérance et de l'expression moderne de l'indifférence 1895-2010, la workshop-ul „Pouvoirs et dépendances au sein de la famille : perspectives comparatives (16e-20e siecles)”, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales/EHESS, Centre de Recherches Historiques/CRH, 28 februarie 2013, Paris, France.
Paper presentation at national and international conferences:
·Ioan Bolovan, ”Căsătoriile mixte în Transilvania de-a lungul timpului: între vulnerabilitate demografică şi oportunitate interculturală”, at international conference Vulnerabilităţi ale populaţiei în spaţiul românesc în secolele XVII-XXI , Arad, 27 - 29 september 2012.
·Ioan Bolovan, Daniela Mârza, Bogdan Crăciun, ”Mixed Marriages in a Multiethnic and Multiconfessional Environment. A Case Study on the City of Cluj (1900-1939)” at Congresul Cities through History - Population, Guimaraes, Portugalia, 23-25 October 2012.
·Daniela Mârza, ”The Child between the State, the Church and the Family - the Case of Transylvania (1850-1918)”, at Nineth European Social Science History conference, Glasgow University, Scoţia, Marea Britanie, 11 - 14 April 2012.
·Marius Eppel, ”In the privacy of the Transylvanian family: Christian rites and popular magical practices (1850-2000)”, at 37RD Annual Meeting of the Social Science History Association, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, November 1-4, 2012.
·Luminita Dumănescu, ”State and Family in Communist Romania”, at Nineth European Social Science History conference, Glasgow University, Scoţia, Marea Britanie, 11 - 14 April 2012.
·Luminita Dumănescu, ”The Survival of the Mixed Family in the Communist Romania”, at International Conference for Academic Disciplines, Florence, Italy, 18-22 June 2012.
·Luminita Dumănescu, Mihaela Hărăgus, Viorel Sârcă, ”A new face for an old town. The marriages with foreigners in Cluj between 1990 and 2010”, at Cities through History - Population Congress, Guimaraes, Portugal, 23-25 October 2012.
·Marius Eppel, ”The crisis of confessionally mixed families in Transylvania as linked to the provisions of the ecclesiastic legislation (19th-20th centuries)”, at 38th Annual Meeting of the Social Science History Association, Organizing Powers, Chicago, IL, 21-24 November 2013.
·Ioan Bolovan, Marius Eppel, „Between public and private. The Church and the Romanians of Transylvania during WWI”, la conferinta The population of Europe: historical roots and long term perspectives, at European Society of Historical Demography, Alghero, Italy, 25-27 September 2014.
·Ioan Bolovan, Marius Eppel, „The Orthodox and the Greek-Catholic Churches in Transylvania and the Romanians during World War I”, la conferinta The First World War and Historiographical Perspective, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 3-5 June 2014.
·Ioan Bolovan, Daniela Marza, Bogdan Craciun, Mihaela Haragus, „Divorces and Mixed Marriages in a Multiethnic and Multiconfessional Environment. A Case Study on the Transylvania in the 20th century”, at the Tenth European Social Science History, Austria, Vienna, 23-26 April 2014
·Daniela Mârza, ”Identitate şi alteritate într-un spaţiu multietnic: chestiunea limbii în familiile mixte din Transilvania (epocile modernă şi contemporană)”, at conference Confesiune, societate, identitate, part of Cluj Academic Days, Cluj, 12 May 2015.
·Daniela Mârza, ”Metode actuale de reconstituire a evolutiei populatiei în demografia istorică - studiu de caz: Transilvania”, at summer school „Provocările istoriei ca ştiinţă şi disciplină de învăţământ la începutul mileniului III”, ediţia a XI-a, Brasov, 2-7 July 2015.
·Ioan Bolovan, Marius Eppel, ”Censuses in the Habsburg Empire (1850-1910). Case Study: Transylvania”, at II CHAM international conference, Lisbon, Portugal, 15-18 July 2015 (with Elena Crinela Holom).
·Marius Eppel, ”State intervention on the control of midwifes (19th-20th centuries)”, at XXIInd International Congress of Historical Sciences (ICHS), Jinan, China, 23-29 August, 2015.
·Ioan Bolovan, Marius Eppel, ”Ethnicity and Politics: Censuses in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Case Study: Transylvania (1869-1910)”, at „European Social Science History Conference”, Valencia, 30 March - 2 April 2016, (with Elena-Crinela Holom).
·Luminita Dumănescu, Daniela Mârza, Mihaela Hărăgus, ”New Data on Infant Mortality in Transylvania in the 19th Century based on the HPDT”, at „European Social Science History Conference”, Valencia, 30 March - 2 April 2016.
·Marius Eppel, ”Căsătoria mixtă la etnicii slavi din România (1950-2010)”, at international conference Dialogul slavistilor la începutul secolului al XXI-lea, Universitatea Babes-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca, 26-28 May 2016.
·Luminita Dumanescu, Ioan Bolovan, ”Aspects of Transylvanian marriages in the second half of 19th century based on a historical population database from Transylvania”, at Biennial Meeting of the European Society of Historical Demography (ESHD), 21-24 September 2016, Leuven, Belgia (with Oana Sorescu-Iudean).
·Marius Eppel, Le choix du conjoint au sein des mariages mixtes en Transylvanie 1950-2010 : l'importance de la religion, în cadrul seminarului Pouvoirs et dépendances au sein de la famille : perspectives comparatives (16e-20e siecles), École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales/EHESS, Centre de Recherches Historiques/CRH, 11 December 2014, Paris, Fran?a.
·Marius Eppel, Le choix du conjoint au sein des mariages mixtes en Transylvanie 1950-2010: l'importance de l'ethnicité, în cadrul seminarului Pouvoirs et dépendances au sein de la famille: perspectives comparatives (16e-20e siecles), École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales/EHESS, Centre de Recherches Historiques/CRH, 26 March 2015, Paris, Fran?a.
Summarizing the results of the entire activity, it can be concluded that the objectives of the project "Mixed marriages: between an exercise of tolerance and modern expression of indifference. 1895-1910" have been fulfilled. There were drawn conclusions covering white areas in Romanian historical population research, there were developed research methods developed useful in the future development of this topic. Last but not the least, the results achieved in this project contributed to strengthening Romanian research in historical demography, and indicating new directions of investigation for the history of multiethnic areas in history.
Cluj Napoca, 27 September 2016
Univ. Prof. Ioan Bolovan, PhD
© 2011 by Luminita Dumanescu
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